PakHub-Logo
Historical Background of Pakistan and its People
Muslim world is a vast and immense mass of land sprawling from West Africa facing the Atlantic to southern Philippines far in the Pacific. Its northern limits touch the Volga in Russia while southern frontiers run up to Mozambique in South-East Africa on the Indian Ocean. In China, in addition to Sinkiang,...
Pakistan Rarely Part of India -Part 1
But, as the following discussion will prove, during the Hindu period it was the people of the Indus Valley in the West and the Padma-Meghna Delta in the East that mostly emerged triumphant. Both the wings remained independent of Gangetic Valley and in fact Pakistan-based governments ruled over northern...
Pakistan- Cradle of Civilization -Part 2
When the pall of darkness recedes from the firmament of the past unfolding the first pre-historic vision of Pakistan, we descry the imposing spectacle of a splendid Civilization spread over a thousand-mile length from the glistening snow-capped mountains of Kashmir to the glittering sand dunes facing...
Coming of the Aryans -Part 3
This prosperous and flourishing civilization (Indus Valley) was brought to an end by the savage invasions of the Aryans about 1,500 B.C. These warlike nomads had encountered a very sophisticated civilization that of the Indus Valley. Large number of skeletons discovered in Harappa, Meonjo Daro and other...
Persian Empire -Part 4
The next chapter of Pakistan’s history unravels itself with the attack of Persians under Darius (522 B.C.486 B.C.) who made this region a province of Achaemenian Empire (or may be earlier under his grand-father Cyrus). Darius affirms this in his inscriptions at Persepolis and Naksh-e-Rustam mentioning...
Alexanders Invasion -Part 5
Western historians have tried to extol the cultural aspects of Alexander’s invasion and to exaggerate the extent of its impact on the East. The truth of the matter is that he was a destroyer of civilizations and in this respect was no better than Changez or Hulagu. He annihilated the greatest civilization...
Mauryan Empire -Part 6
Alexander’s invasion had a two-fold political effect: By crushing the Achaemenian Empire it loosened the already feeble control of the Persians over Pakistan; and by creating a power vacuum in this area it encouraged, for the first time in history, intrusion by India into Pakistan. Fortunately...
Graeco-Bactrian Rule -Part 7
Since Alexander’s invasion, a number of Greek families had settled down in various parts of Pakistan and had made sizeable contribution to art and architecture, science and medicine during Mauryan period. “That during this period there were several foreign communities living in northwestern...
The Sakas -Part 8
The Graeco-Bactrian rule, like that of its predecessor the Mauryan, did not last for more than a century. Internecine warfare and internal schisms soon weakened them. Pakistan was divided into several petty Greek Kingdoms which easily fell victim to the great wave of Scythians (Sakas) which took place...
The Kushans -Part 9
The next important chapter in Pakistan’s history begins with the arrival of another wave of Central Asian tribes called the Yueh-chi. Because of the turbulent and unsettled conditions on the borders of China, one tribe was chasing out the other and occupying their grazing lands. One such movement...
White Huns -Part 10
Coming back to the Hun invasion it may be mentioned that this was also, like that of the Sakas, one of the greatest migrations of Central Asian nomadic tribes in the history of Pakistan and the sub-continent. The particular branch of the Huns which was encamped in the Oxus Valley and which came to Pakistan...
Arab Rule -Part 11
During the period of Rajput supremacy in north India i.e., 7th to 12th century A.D. another event occurred in the history of Pakistan which ultimately brought about a profound change in its entire composition and character. The great Muslim soldier Mohammad Bin Qasim conquered Pakistan early in the 8th...
Ghaznavid Rule -Part 12
The next period in Pakistan’s history begins with the defeat of Raj Jaipal and his son Anandpal, rulers of northern areas of Pakistan, and of the Ismaili and Carmathian rulers of southern areas i.e., Multan and Sind at the hands of Mahmud Ghaznavi, leading to the unity of the two region. Eleventh...
Post-Ghaznavid Era -Part 13
After the conquest of Pakistan and a major portion of northern India; and Bangla Desh at the end of the 12th and beginning of 13th century A.D., Mohammad Ghori appointed four Governors for the conquered regions. It should be noticed that here also Pakistan was treated as separate from India. He appointed...
Pakistan from 3000 BC to the present -Part 14
1. Indus Valley Civilization: 3000-1500 B.C. i.e. about 1500 yrs. Independent, separate from India. 2. Aryan period: 1500-522 B.C. i.e. about 978 yrs. Independent, separate from India. 3. Small semi-independent states: 522-326 B.C. i.e. about 196 yrs. Under the suzerainty of Iran’s Kayani (Achaemenian)...